Philosophical Foundation Of Education


Original Philosophy

School of Thought

  • REALISM

Thinkers:

  • Aristotle
  • Harris Broudy
  • John Locke
  • John Comenius
  • Johann Henrich Pestalozzi
  • Jean Jacques Rosseu

Assumptions

  • Reality is what we observe.
  • Experience exists only in the physical world.
  • Mind is like a mirror receiving images only from the physical world.
  • Nature is a primary self-evident reality, a starting point in philosophizing.
  • Investigating and reasoning are important in any effective adjustment to the real world in the control of experience.

Role of Teachers

  • Help develop initiative and ability to control experiences.
  • Help realize that they can enter into the meaning of their experiences
  • The students would be taught factual information for mastery.

Models/Strategies

  • The use of Scientific Methods
  1. Defining the problem
  2. Observing factors related to problem
  3. Hypothesizing
  4. Testing the hypothesis

Educational Aim

  • Gives direction and form to individual’s basic potentialities.
  • Determines the direction of the individual’s inherited tendencies.
  • Provide an education that could produce a good individual and a good society by meeting 4 principal need of an individual.
  1. Aptitude needs
  2. Self-determination needs
  3. Self-realization needs.
  4. Self-integration needs

Curriculum Emphasis

  • Study habits
  • Research skills
  • Library skills
  • Evaluation
  • Observation
  • Experimentation
  • Analytical and critical thinking

 


School of Thought

  • IDEALISM

Thinkers:

  • Plato
  • Socrates
  • Rene Decartes

Assumptions

  • Emphasize the importance of mind, soul and spirit.
  • Believes in refined wisdom. Based on the view that reality is a world within a person’s mind.
  • Schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes.
  • One of the oldest school of thoughts with its origin traced back to Plato’s ideas.

Role of Teachers

  • Transmitter of knowledge
  • Chief source of inspiration
  • Creator of educational environment (teacher-centered).

Models/Strategies

  • Lecture-Discussion Method
  • Excursion
  • Question Method
  • Project Method

Educational Aim

  • To develop the individual spiritually, mentally, and morally.

Curriculum Emphasis

Subject Matter of mind:

  • literature
  • history
  • philosophy
  • mathematics
  • arts


 

School of Thought

  • PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM/EMPERICISM

Thinkers:

  • John Dewey
  • Charles Sanders Peirce
  • William James
  • Richard Rorty

Assumptions

  • Conservative philosophy
  • Primarily an American philosophy.
  • Focuses on reflective thinking. The knowledge process, the relationship of ideas into action.
  • Encourages people to find processes that work in order to attain desired goals.
  • Makes use of experience as a source of knowledge

Role of Teachers

  • Keeps order in the class
  • Facilitates group work
  • Encourages and offers suggestions, questions and help in planning
  • Curriculum planner.

Models/Strategies

  • Experimental Methods
    • Statement of the problem
    • Hypothesizing
    • Investigating or data gathering
    • Testing hypothesis
    • Forming conclusions
    • Creative and constructive projects
    • Field trips
    • Laboratory work
    • Activity-centered
    • Student-centered activities

Educational Aim

  • For social efficiency.
  • Train the students to continuously and actively quest for information and production of new ideas needed to adjust to the ever-changing society.

Curriculum Emphasis

  • Creation of new social order
  • Integrated and based on the problem of society (NCBTS based).
  • Subjects are interdisciplinary.


Traditional/Conservative Philosophy

School of Thought

  • PERENNIALISM

Thinkers:

  • Robert Maynard Hutchins
  • Mortimer Jerome Adler
  • Jacques Maritain

Assumptions

  • Most Conservative philosophy
  • Education focuses on developing rationality.
  • Education is preparation for life, and the students should be taught of the world’s permanencies through structured studies.
  • Truths are constant and universal.
  • Students must acquire knowledge of unchanging principles.

Role of Teachers

  • Known Master of Discipline.
  • Source of knowledge (teacher-centered).

Models/Strategies

  • Subject-centered.
  • Methods of disciplining the mind through reading and discussion
  • Memorization to develop mastery.

Educational Aim

  • To develop power of thought, internalize truths that are universal and constant.

Curriculum Emphasis

  • Great ideas or universal principles.
  • Focused on arts and sciences.


 

School of Thought

  • ESSENTIALISM/TRADITIONALISM/CONSERVATISM

Thinkers:

  • Plato
  • Karl Popper
  • John Stuart Mill
  • William Bagley

Assumptions

  • Assumes that values are embedded in the universe waiting to be discovered and understood.
  • Learning is relatively static, since there is only one way to understand the world that is already written in the book (textbook approach to learning).
  • Study of knowledge and skills based on the book is imperative to become productive member of the society.

Role of Teachers

  • Base the lesson to the book.
  • Prepare well-organized lesson to prove that he is an authority of instruction.

Models/Strategies

  • Deductive method
  • Drill method
  • Recitation
  • Memorization

Educational Aim

  • Provide sound training of the fundamental skills.
  • Develop individual to perform justly, skillfully and magnanimously.

Curriculum Emphasis

  • Emphasis on essential skills in reading, writing and counting.
  • Hard sciences and vocational courses.


Contemporary Philosophy

School of Thought

  • PROGRESSIVISM

Thinkers:

  • William Heard Kilpatrick
  • John Dewey

Assumptions

  • Exactly opposite of perennialism.
  • Assumes that the world changes.
  • Learner must be taught to be independent, self-reliant thinker, learn to discipline himself, be responsible for the consequences of his actions.
  • Emphasize on the concept of progress which asserts that human beings are capable of improving and perfecting their environment.
  • Curriculum must be derived from the needs and interests of the students.

Role of Teachers

  • Acts as a resource person
  • Guide or facilitator of learning (student-centered).
  • Teaches students how to learn and become active problem solvers.
  • Teachers provide experiences that will make students active and not passive.

Models/Strategies

  • Cooperative learning strategies.
  • Reflective strategies
  • Problem solving strategies.

Educational Aim

  • To provide the learner the necessary skills to be able to interact with his ever changing environment.

Curriculum Emphasis

  • Activity and experience centered on life functions.

 

 

School of Thought

  • EXISTENTIALISM/EXPERIMENTALISM

Thinkers:

  • Soren Aabye Kierkegaard
  • Jean-Paul Sartre

Assumptions

  • Man has no fixed nature and he shapes his being as he lives.
  • Man exists of his own choice.
  • Reality is what you experience.
  • School exists to discover and expand society we live in. Students study social experiments and solve problems.
  • Existence precedes essence.

Role of Teachers

  • Good provider of experiences.
  • Effective questioner.
  • Mental disciplinarian.
  • Creates an atmosphere for active interaction.
  • Discuss the different situations based on each individual experiences.

Models/Strategies

  • Inquiry Approach
  • Question-Answer Method

Educational Aim

  • To train an individual for significant and meaningful existence.

Curriculum Emphasis

  • Subject-centered.
  • Arts for aesthetic expression
  • Humanities for ethical values.

 

 

School of Thought

  • RECONSTRUCTIONALISM

Thinkers:

  • Theodore Brameld
  • George Sylvester Counts
  • Paulo Reglus Neves Freire
  • Ivan Illich

Assumptions

  • Man to a significant degree plan and control his society.
  • Society is in need of constant reconstruction.
  • Social change involves a reconstruction of education and the use of education in reconstructing society.
  • Mankind has the intellectual, technological, and moral potential to create a world civilization of abundance, health and human capacity.

Role of Teachers

  • Lead the learners in designing programs for social, educational, practical and economic change.
  • Primary agent of social change.
  • Initiates lively discussions on controversial issues, political and educational.
  • Enables the learners to critically examine their cultural heritage.

Models/Strategies

  • Community-based projects
  • Problem-oriented method

Educational Aim

  • Education is based on the quest for better society.
  • Education enlivens the students’ awareness of different societal problems.

Curriculum Emphasis

  • Stresses learning that enable the individual to live in a global milieu.
  • Controversial national and international issues.
  • Emphasis on social sciences and social research methods; examination of social, economic and political problems.
  • Focused on present and future trends.


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37 comments on “Philosophical Foundation Of Education

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  2. thanks for sharing the info. however,some are missing like the character development and the role of school. nway,i really appreciated your work it helped me in a more little way.

  3. ,gud pm, havE A blessd day to u. .thanks 4 da inf0., i have learnd da differences am0ng da phl0s0phies easily. . . .

  4. What do you know Hb? Please share it to us, otherwise you’re just as impoverished as what you’re pointing out to the author.

    At least he did something, can’t you see he hasn’t even tried to monetize his site or endorse anything for a fee, this shows of his real intent of free knowledge exchange rather than making anything out of it.

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